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Dualtropic CXCR6/CCR5 Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infection of Sooty Mangabey Primary Lymphocytes: Distinct Coreceptor Use in Natural versus Pathogenic Hosts of SIV.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Virology
1098-5514
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Volume
89
Issue
18
Pages
9252–9261
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01236-15
PMID: 26109719
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Natural hosts of SIV, such as sooty mangabeys, sustain high viral loads but do not develop disease, while nonnatural hosts, like rhesus macaques, develop AIDS. Understanding this difference may help elucidate mechanisms of pathogenesis. Natural hosts have very low levels of the SIV entry coreceptor CCR5, suggesting that restricted entry may limit infection of certain target cells, although it is unclear how the virus replicates so robustly. Here we show that in sooty mangabey lymphocytes, infection is mediated by the alternative entry coreceptor CXCR6, as well as CCR5. In rhesus macaque lymphocytes, however, infection occurs entirely through CCR5. The use of CXCR6 for entry, combined with very low CCR5 levels, may redirect the virus to different cell targets in natural hosts. It is possible that differential targeting may favor infection of nonessential cells and limit infection of critical cells in natural hosts, thus contributing to benign outcome of infection.

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