Natural hosts of SIV, such as sooty mangabeys, sustain high viral loads but do not develop disease, while nonnatural hosts, like rhesus macaques, develop AIDS. Understanding this difference may help elucidate mechanisms of pathogenesis. Natural hosts have very low levels of the SIV entry coreceptor CCR5, suggesting that restricted entry may limit infection of certain target cells, although it is unclear how the virus replicates so robustly. Here we show that in sooty mangabey lymphocytes, infection is mediated by the alternative entry coreceptor CXCR6, as well as CCR5. In rhesus macaque lymphocytes, however, infection occurs entirely through CCR5. The use of CXCR6 for entry, combined with very low CCR5 levels, may redirect the virus to different cell targets in natural hosts. It is possible that differential targeting may favor infection of nonessential cells and limit infection of critical cells in natural hosts, thus contributing to benign outcome of infection.