Lymphocytes express surface receptors that mediate adhesion to endothelial cells and control T cell migration into inflammatory sites. Lymphocyte VLA-4 and LFA-1 mediate adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelium, but the contribution of these molecules to in vivo migration and lymphocyte mediated inflammation is not clear. Here we show that both VLA-4 and LFA-1 contribute to not only lymphocyte adhesion but to in vivo lymphocyte migration in the rat and that nearly complete inhibition of lymphocyte accumulation is observed when both integrins are blocked. Furthermore, inhibition of delayed-type hypersensitivity-induced inflammation, as quantified by skin induration and fibrin deposition, is observed with either anti-VLA-4 or anti-LFA-1, but much stronger inhibition is observed with a blockade of both integrins. Thus, dual inhibition of the VLA-4 and LFA-1 pathways is required for a maximal anti-inflammatory effect in some types of T cell-mediated inflammation.