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Dual film-like organelles enable spatial separation of orthogonal eukaryotic translation.

Authors
  • Reinkemeier, Christopher D1
  • Lemke, Edward A2
  • 1 Biocentre, Departments of Biology and Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Hanns-Dieter-Hüsch-Weg 17, 55128 Mainz, Germany; Institute of Molecular Biology gGmbH, Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz, Germany; Structural and Computational Biology Unit and Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 2 Biocentre, Departments of Biology and Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Hanns-Dieter-Hüsch-Weg 17, 55128 Mainz, Germany; Institute of Molecular Biology gGmbH, Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz, Germany; Structural and Computational Biology Unit and Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cell
Publication Date
Sep 16, 2021
Volume
184
Issue
19
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.08.001
PMID: 34433013
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Engineering new functionality into living eukaryotic systems by enzyme evolution or de novo protein design is a formidable challenge. Cells do not rely exclusively on DNA-based evolution to generate new functionality but often utilize membrane encapsulation or formation of membraneless organelles to separate distinct molecular processes that execute complex operations. Applying this principle and the concept of two-dimensional phase separation, we develop film-like synthetic organelles that support protein translation on the surfaces of various cellular membranes. These sub-resolution synthetic films provide a path to make functionally distinct enzymes within the same cell. We use these film-like organelles to equip eukaryotic cells with dual orthogonal expanded genetic codes that enable the specific reprogramming of distinct translational machineries with single-residue precision. The ability to spatially tune the output of translation within tens of nanometers is not only important for synthetic biology but has implications for understanding the function of membrane-associated protein condensation in cells. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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