Etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) is related, at least in part, with nutritional profile and epidemiological data indicating a key role of dietary fat on CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, inflammation and eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid might have a pivotal role in CRC development. However, the effect of specific fatty acids (FAs) on intestinal epithelial cell growth is not completely studied now. By this reason, the aim of this work is to unravel the effect of different saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and some LCFA metabolites on CRC cell line growth and their possible mechanisms of action. Our results demonstrated that oleic acid is a potent mitogenic factor to Caco-2 cells, at least in part, through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic synthesized by lipoxigenase pathway, whereas polyunsaturated FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid has a dual behavior effect depending on its concentration. A high concentration, EPA induced apoptosis through intrinsic pathway, whereas at low concentration induced cell proliferation that could be related to the synthesis of eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E3 and 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and the subsequent induction of mitogenic cell signaling pathways (ERK 1/2, CREB, p38α). Thus, this study contributes to understand the complicated relationship between fat ingest and CRC.