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A dual autoencoder and singular value decomposition based feature optimization for the segmentation of brain tumor from MRI images

  • Aswani, K.1, 2
  • Menaka, D.3
  • 1 Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumrancoil, Tamil Nadu, India , Kumrancoil (India)
  • 2 3 , Malappuram (India)
  • 3 Noorul Islam Center for Higher Education, Kumrancoil, Tamil Nadu, India , Kumrancoil (India)
Published Article
BMC Medical Imaging
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
May 13, 2021
DOI: 10.1186/s12880-021-00614-3
Springer Nature


BackgroundThe brain tumor is the growth of abnormal cells inside the brain. These cells can be grown into malignant or benign tumors. Segmentation of tumor from MRI images using image processing techniques started decades back. Image processing based brain tumor segmentation can be divided in to three categories conventional image processing methods, Machine Learning methods and Deep Learning methods. Conventional methods lacks the accuracy in segmentation due to complex spatial variation of tumor. Machine Learning methods stand as a good alternative to conventional methods. Methods like SVM, KNN, Fuzzy and a combination of either of these provide good accuracy with reasonable processing speed. The difficulty in processing the various feature extraction methods and maintain accuracy as per the medical standards still exist as a limitation for machine learning methods. In Deep Learning features are extracted automatically in various stages of the network and maintain accuracy as per the medical standards. Huge database requirement and high computational time is still poses a problem for deep learning. To overcome the limitations specified above we propose an unsupervised dual autoencoder with latent space optimization here. The model require only normal MRI images for its training thus reducing the huge tumor database requirement. With a set of normal class data, an autoencoder can reproduce the feature vector into an output layer. This trained autoencoder works well with normal data while it fails to reproduce an anomaly to the output layer. But a classical autoencoder suffer due to poor latent space optimization. The Latent space loss of classical autoencoder is reduced using an auxiliary encoder along with the feature optimization based on singular value decomposition (SVD). The patches used for training are not traditional square patches but we took both horizontal and vertical patches to keep both local and global appearance features on the training set. An Autoencoder is applied separately for learning both horizontal and vertical patches. While training a logistic sigmoid transfer function is used for both encoder and decoder parts. SGD optimizer is used for optimization with an initial learning rate of .001 and the maximum epochs used are 4000. The network is trained in MATLAB 2018a with a processor capacity of 3.7 GHz with NVIDIA GPU and 16 GB of RAM.ResultsThe results are obtained using a patch size of 16 × 64, 64 × 16 for horizontal and vertical patches respectively. In Glioma images tumor is not grown from a point rather it spreads randomly. Region filling and connectivity operations are performed to get the final tumor segmentation. Overall the method segments Meningioma better than Gliomas. Three evaluation metrics are considered to measure the performance of the proposed system such as Dice Similarity Coefficient, Positive Predictive Value, and Sensitivity.ConclusionAn unsupervised method for the segmentation of brain tumor from MRI images is proposed here. The proposed dual autoencoder with SVD based feature optimization reduce the latent space loss in the classical autoencoder. The proposed method have advantages in computational efficiency, no need of huge database requirement and better accuracy than machine learning methods. The method is compared Machine Learning methods Like SVM, KNN and supervised deep learning methods like CNN and commentable results are obtained.

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