The dry mass contents of the rabbit corneal epithelium and of the superficial stroma were determined during healing of a standardized corneal alkali wound. Quantitative microradiography was applied to freeze-sectioned corneal specimens. This method allows a morphological resolution of the order of 1 micron and quantitative dry mass determinations in volumes down to about 100 microns 3. For comparison, the epithelial morphology was studied using Toluidine Blue stained sections. Flat epithelial cells covered the wound surface during the first day, the dry mass content being equivalent to that of the normal wing cells. The dry mass content in the epithelium and, indirectly, the water content, followed the hydration state of the superficial stroma. A progressive thickening of the epithelium and a varying morphological picture were found during the first 2 months following initial damage. Normal thickness and cytoarchitecture were found after 6 months. Generally, the dry mass content of the epithelium was reduced compared with physiological values for 2 months. Later, the cells close to the stroma regained normal values. Cells in the middle zone and the superficial zone reached normal values after 6 months. The significance of the endothelial damage for the hydration state of the epithelium was discussed.