Drug use is pervasive in our society. Because Americans who use and abuse drugs are part of the working population, employers will continue to be affected by employees with substance abuse problems. The social, economic, and legal costs to business have created a new awareness, and companies are recognizing the need to take special measures to control drug and alcohol use. Urine drug screening has been identified as a valuable tool in discovering, documenting, and ultimately controlling drug use in the workplace. This article deals with the complex issues involved in designing and implementing an industrial drug screening program. The various laboratory techniques are identified and discussed, with special emphasis on their advantages and limitations.