Moderate hypothermia is one of the methods utilized for myocardial protection when the aortic root is cross-clamped but not opened. A combination of low-pressure, low-flow retrograde coronary sinus perfusion (RCSP) with oxygenated blood at moderate hypothermia (29 degrees C.) was demonstrated to yield significantly better protection to left ventricular function in dogs than does moderate hypothermia alone. Ventricular function was recorded before and after 1 hour of aortic cross-clamping at identical preloads and heart rates. Aortic pressure was returned to a level as close to base line as possible by constriction of the descending aorta. The average mean aortic pressure of the animals perfused retrograde at 29 degrees C. was returned to within 4 per cent of base line. By contrast, in the animals protected with moderate hypothermia alone, the pressure could be returned only to a level which was 37 per cent lower than base line. In animals protected with moderate hypothermia alone, cardiac output dropped 62 per cent, left ventricular stroke work (LVSW) 75 per cent, and peak dp/dt 44 per cent. In the animals protected with RCSP and moderate hypothermia, the cardiac output dropped 6 per cent, LVSW 9 per cent, and peak dp/dt 5 per cent. The differences in the changes noted between these two groups were significant for LVSW and dp/dt at a level of p less than 0.01 and for cardiac output and aortic pressure at a level of p less than 0.05. These results suggest that RCSP may be indicated when moderate hypothermia is otherwise chosen to be the sole source of myocardial protection.