Genome sequencing has identified, for the first time, chlorate reduction composite transposons. These transposons are constructed with flanking insertion sequences that differ in type and orientation between organisms, indicating that this mobile element has formed multiple times and is important for dissemination. Apart from core metabolic enzymes, very little is known about the genetic factors involved in chlorate reduction. Comparative analysis has identified several genes that may also be important, but the relative absence of accessory genes suggests that this mobile metabolism relies on host systems for electron transport, regulation, and cofactor synthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of Cld and ClrA provides support for the hypothesis that chlorate reduction was built multiple times from type II dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductases and cld. In at least one case, cld has been coopted from a perchlorate reduction island for this purpose. This work is a significant step toward understanding the genetics and evolution of chlorate reduction.