First described in 1545, phantom limb pain is a frequent complication after limb amputation, described by 60 to 85% of amputees. Stump pain, phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain are often combined. Physiopathology is complex and peripheral, medullar and cortical mechanisms are combined. Pharmacological preventive treatments as well as regional anaesthesia techniques have equivalent results. Such treatments must be investigated more precisely as postoperative rehabilitation of amputees mostly depends on pain relief.