The cell cycle is tightly regulated by cyclins and their catalytic moieties, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclin D1, in association with CDK4/6, acts as a mitogenic sensor and integrates extracellular mitogenic signals and cell cycle progression. When deregulated (overexpressed, accumulated, inappropriately located), cyclin D1 becomes an oncogene and is recognized as a driver of solid tumors and hemopathies. Recent studies on the oncogenic roles of cyclin D1 reported non-canonical functions dependent on the partners of cyclin D1 and its location within tumor cells or tissues. Support for these new functions was provided by various mouse models of oncogenesis. Finally, proteomic and transcriptomic data identified complex cyclin D1 networks. This review focuses on these aspects of cyclin D1 pathophysiology, which may be crucial for targeted therapy.Abbreviations: aa, amino acid; AR, androgen receptor; ATM, ataxia telangectasia mutant; ATR, ATM and Rad3-related; CDK, cyclin-dependent kinase; ChREBP, carbohydrate response element binding protein; CIP, CDK-interacting protein; CHK1/2, checkpoint kinase 1/2; CKI, CDK inhibitor; DDR, DNA damage response; DMP1, cyclin D-binding myb-like protein; DSB, double-strand DNA break; DNA-PK, DNA-dependent protein kinase; ER, estrogen receptor; FASN, fatty acid synthase; GSK3β, glycogen synthase-3β; HAT, histone acetyltransferase; HDAC, histone deacetylase; HK2, hexokinase 2; HNF4α, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α; HR, homologous recombination; IR, ionizing radiation; KIP, kinase inhibitory protein; MCL, mantle cell lymphoma; NHEJ, non-homologous end-joining; PCAF, p300/CREB binding-associated protein; PGC1α, PPARγ co-activator 1α; PEST, proline-glutamic acid-serine-threonine, PK, pyruvate kinase; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; RB1, retinoblastoma protein; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SRC, steroid receptor coactivator; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TGFβ, transforming growth factor β; UPS, ubiquitin-proteasome system; USP22, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22; XPO1 (or CRM1) exportin 1.