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Dose–response evaluation of urinary cadmium and kidney injury biomarkers in Chinese residents and dietary limit standards

Authors
  • Qing, Ying1
  • Yang, Jiaqi1
  • Zhu, Yuanshen1
  • Li, Yongzhen1
  • Zheng, Weiwei2
  • Wu, Min1
  • He, Gengsheng1
  • 1 Fudan University, No. 130 Dongan Road, Shanghai, 200032, China , Shanghai (China)
  • 2 Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China , Shanghai (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Health
Publisher
BioMed Central
Publication Date
Jun 30, 2021
Volume
20
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12940-021-00760-9
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Global Environment
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundCadmium (Cd) is a common heavy metal that mainly causes renal damage. There is a lack of research on the large-scale and systematic evaluation of the association between urinary Cd (U-Cd) and various effect biomarkers among Chinese residents.MethodsBased on the establishment process of dietary Cd limit standards by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the dose–response relationships between U-Cd and four biomarkers, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), N-acetyl-β-glucosidase (NAG), microalbumin (mALB), and retinol binding Protein (RBP) were explored, respectively. Toxicokinetic model was used to derive the dietary Cd exposure limit for Chinese residents after critical U-Cd concentration was calculated.ResultsAs the sensitive biomarkers of renal injury, β2-MG and NAG were selected to estimate the 95% confidence interval lower limit of the U-Cd benchmark dose (BMDL5) to be 3.07 and 2.98 μg/g Cr, respectively. Dietary Cd exposure limit was calculated to be 0.28 μg/kg bw/day (16.8 μg/day, based on the body weight of 60 kg), which was lower than the average Chinese Cd exposure (30.6 μg/day) by the China National Nutrient and Health Survey.ConclusionThis study established an overall association between U-Cd and renal injury biomarkers, and explored the Chinese dietary Cd exposure limits, which helps improve Chinese Cd exposure risk assessment and provides a reference basis for formulating reasonable exposure standards.

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