The present study was undertaken to optimize the dose of lithium, with an aim to increase the retention of I-131 in the thyroid follicles while maintaining the euthyroid state. 24 female Wistar rats weighing 110 ± 20 g were segregated into four groups. Animals in group I were fed standard laboratory feed and water throughout the period of experimentation. Animals in group II, III and IV were additionally fed with lithium in the form of lithium carbonate orally, at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight, 20 mg/kg body weight, 30 mg/kg body weight respectively. The dose of lithium was started 1 week prior to radioiodine administration and continued thereafter for another 8 days. After 7 days of lithium treatment, 0.48 MBq of carrier-free I-131 was injected intraperitoneally into each rat, of the four groups. I-131 thyroidal uptake and biokinetics, as well as serum TSH, T3, T4 levels were estimated in all the treatment groups. A significant increase in the thyroid and whole body counts was observed after 4 and 24 h of I-131 aministration in lithium treated rats, compared to control animals. An increase in thyroidal effective t1/2 and serum TSH levels, along with decrease in the levels of serum T3 and T4 was observed with a dose of 20 mg/kg or higher. In Conclusion, a Lithium dose of 10 mg/kg body weight in rats could increase the uptake of I-131 in the thyroid, without disturbing the control circulating levels of thyroid hormones.