Posttransplantation malignancy in the allograft is a rare complication of orthotopic liver transplantation. In the described case, an abnormal T-tube cholangiogram, performed 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation between a male donor and a female recipient, prompted needle liver biopsy. A moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was found. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the Y chromosome indicated male origin of malignancy. Donor-related disease was confirmed by comparative DNA analysis of genomic sequences from the donor liver, associated tumor, and recipient peripheral blood. Results of these investigations qualified the recipient for a second liver transplant.