Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were undergraduates (94 men and 363 women) between the ages of 18-25 who reported that they had consumed alcohol within the past 30 days. Results showed that greater use of protective behavioral strategies was associated with lower rates of alcohol consumption, less harmful drinking patterns, and fewer negative consequences for everyone except men with low self-esteem. The implications of these findings for understanding the link between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes are discussed.