Low socioeconomic status and Medicaid insurance as a primary payer have been shown to influence resource utilization and risk-adjusted outcomes for total joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Medicaid primary payer status on outcomes following shoulder arthroplasty (SA). A retrospective review of shoulder surgery patients was undertaken to identify a matched cohort of 51 patients who underwent SA and were stratified based on insurance type into two cohorts: 28 Medicaid (M) patients and 23 non-Medicaid (NM) patients. Baseline demographics, resource utilization, and outcomes were compared as well as pre-and-postoperative patient-reported outcomes (PRO) and functional scores. PRO scores included the American shoulder and elbow surgeons score (ASES), the Penn shoulder score (PSS), and the subjective shoulder value (SSV). There were no statistically significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, or preoperative baseline scores between the cohorts, except for age (M: 55.3 years; NM: 67.5 years; p ≤ 0.001) and smoking status (M: 13 patients; NM: 4 patients; p = 0.029). Medicaid patients showed a slightly higher rate of missed follow-ups (M: 1.1 vs. NM: 0.9; p = 0.370). All Medicaid and non-Medicaid patients experienced significant improvement on PRO scores and active forward flexion. Medicaid patients demonstrated equivalent final postoperative scores for ASES (M: 65; NM: 57; p = 0.454), PSS (M: 63; NM: 51; p = 0.242), SSV (M: 70; NM: 69; p = 1.0) and range of motion measurements. Overall results suggest that Medicaid patients can expect significant improvement after SA and the same level of PRO's compared to non-Medicaid-insured population. Level III, Retrospective Comparative Design, Treatment Study.