Although dietary guidance recommends increasing consumption of whole grains and concurrently limiting consumption of refined and/or enriched grain foods, emerging research suggests that certain refined grains may be part of a healthy dietary pattern. A scientific expert panel was convened to review published data since the release of 2015 dietary guidance in defined areas of grain research, which included nutrient intakes, diet quality, enrichment/fortification, and associations with weight-related outcomes. Based on a 1-d roundtable discussion, the expert panel reached consensus that 1) whole grains and refined grains can make meaningful nutrient contributions to dietary patterns, 2) whole and refined grain foods contribute nutrient density, 3) fortification and enrichment of grains remain vital in delivering nutrient adequacy in the American diet, 4) there is inconclusive scientific evidence that refined grain foods are linked to overweight and obesity, and 5) gaps exist in the scientific literature with regard to grain foods and health. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Society for Nutrition.