Concepts for digital denture manufacturing are market-available but studies comparing the trueness of such dentures, either milled (MIL) or additive manufactured, compared to injection molded (IM) ones are still limited. Regarding the impact of artificial aging and microwave sterilization on this parameter, no data are available. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the trueness of IM, MIL, and stereolithography (SLA) printed denture bases after manufacturing, hydrothermal cycling, and microwave sterilization. Sixteen edentulous maxillary plaster models were poured using a silicone mold and digitized by means of a desktop scanner. For group IM, 16 denture bases were injection molded using these models. For group MIL and SLA, the denture bases were virtually designed and manufactured referring to the digitized data. A total of 48 samples were scanned 1) after manufacturing, 2) after hydrothermal cycling (5-55 °C, N = 5,000), and after 3) three as well as 4) six cycles of microwave sterilization for 6 min each at 640 W. The 3D surface deviation of the total intaglio surface, the palate, the alveolar ridge, and the border seal region was evaluated on the basis of the root mean square estimation (RMSE) and positive and negative mean deviations with an inspection software. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were performed (α = 0.05). MIL showed the lowest deviations of the total RMSE (P ≤ .006) compared with the scans of the plaster models. In comparison, IM showed increased, mainly positive, deviations (P = .006) at the border seal. SLA presented the highest total RMSE (P = .001) with increased negative deviations, likewise at the border seal. In contrast to SLA (P = .001), no differences between IM and MIL (P = .816) were measured after hydrothermal cycling. Following microwave sterilization, the trueness of SLA was higher compared to IM and MIL (P = .001), with no differences between MIL and IM (P = .153). Distortion of IM and MIL was measured after the 3rd cycle with no further changes observed thereafter (P ≥ .385). It can be concluded, that subtractive manufacturing of denture bases results in the highest trueness, followed by IM and SLA. In contrast to IM and SLA, hydrothermal cycling did not affect MIL. Solely SLA printed denture bases remained dimensionally stable after microwave sterilization. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.