Methane production and consumption in anaerobic marine sediments is catalyzed by a series of reversible tetrahydromethanopterin (H 4MPT)-linked C1 transfer reactions. Although many of these reactions are conserved between one-carbon compound utilizing microorganisms, two remain diagnostic for archaeal methane metabolism. These include reactions catalyzed by N5-methyltetrahydromethanopterin: coenzyme M methyltransferase and methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The latter enzyme is central to C–H bond formation and cleavage underlying methanogenic and reverse methanogenic phenotypes. Here, we describe a set of novel tools for the detection and quantification of H4MPT-linked C1 transfer reactions mediated by uncultivated anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME). These tools include polymerase chain reaction primers targeting ANME MCR subunit A subgroups and protein extraction methods from marine sediments compatible with high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling community structure and functional dynamics.