AbstractNucleoli, the largest subnuclear compartments, are formed around arrays of ribosomal gene repeats transcribed by RNA polymerase I. The primary function of nucleoli is ribosome biogenesis. Specific DNA damage response mechanisms exist to maintain the genomic stability of ribosomal repeats. Here, we provide a snapshot of our current understanding of processes involved in nucleolar DNA damage response. We discuss structure and function of ribosomal repeats, techniques developed for studying DNA damage response in nucleoli, as well as molecular mechanisms of DNA damage-induced repression of nucleolar transcription and nucleoli reorganization.