Colletotrichum spp. are causal agents of anthracnose disease in chili fruits and other tropical crops. The disease is increasing in chili fruits in Thailand and significantly reduces fruit quality and fruit production. Forty-eight isolates of Colletotrichum spp. associated with chili anthracnose were collected from different areas of Thailand during 2010–2015. Based on morphological characteristic identification, 10 isolates were shown to belong to the C. gloeosporioides species complex, 24 isolates belong to the C. acutatum species complex and 14 isolates to C. capsici. For molecular identification, two primer sets, ITS1/ITS4 and ACT528/ACT738, were used for amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of rRNA gene (ITS1–5.8S–ITS2) and partial region actin gene (ACT), respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of individual and combined ITS region and actin nucleotide sequences identified the collected isolates into 4 species: C. gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. acutatum and C. capsici. The pathogenicity test demonstrated that all four species were pathogenic on intact unwounded and healthy fruits. These results indicated that C. capsici, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides and C. siamense were the causal agents of chili anthracnose disease.