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Diverse influences of androgen-disrupting chemicals on immune responses mounted by macrophages.

Authors
  • Kim, Kyong Hoon
  • Yeon, Seung-min
  • Kim, Hyun Gyung
  • Choi, Hyun Suk
  • Kang, Hyojeung
  • Park, Hee-Deung
  • Park, Tae Won
  • Pack, Seung Pil
  • Lee, Eun Hee
  • Byun, Youngjoo
  • Choi, Sang-Eun
  • Lee, Kenneth Sung
  • Ha, Un-Hwan
  • Jung, Yong Woo
Type
Published Article
Journal
Inflammation
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2014
Volume
37
Issue
3
Pages
649–656
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10753-013-9781-1
PMID: 24287822
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Androgen-disrupting chemicals (ADCs) can alter male sexual development. Although the effects of ADCs on hormone disruption have been studied, their influence on the immune response is not fully understood. To investigate the effects of ADCs on innate immunity, we tested eight candidate ADCs for their influence on macrophages by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability. Our results showed that treatment with a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and hexachlorobenzene increased NO production in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. In contrast, compared to exposure to a negative control, exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), testosterone (TTT), or permethrin decreased NO production. DEHA, BBP, and TTT inhibited NO production in an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner. Treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NNP), or tributyltin chloride (TBTC) reduced NO production and induced cell death. While BPA induced RAW 264.7 cell death through apoptosis, NNP and TBTC caused cell death through necrosis. These results offer insights into the influences of ADCs on the innate immune system.

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