Changes in lipid metabolism are an important risk factor for vascular complications during chronic renal failure (CRF). In experimental CRF hypercholesterolemia has been found to be the main lipid disorder. It is probably due to enhanced cholesterologenesis. Mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. It is well known that activity of cholesterologenesis undergoes a significant diurnal rhythm. However, there was no evidence that this rhythm is still present in the course of experimental CRF. Results of our studies indicate that in contrast to puromycin induced nephrotic syndrome, diurnal rhythm of cholesterologenesis in CRF rats is preserved both in liver and in the intestine tissue. Significant higher incorporation of tritiated water into cholesterol fraction was found in vivo both in liver as well as in intestine of CRF rats, as compared to control animals. Increased (with comparison to the controls) incorporation of 14C-acetate, and 3H-mevalonate into CRF rat liver sterols indicate that mechanism of enhanced cholesterologenesis is more complex than simply due to the elevated level of mevalonate (potential substrate for cholesterologenesis) which has been reported in plasma of CRF animals.