In Brassica species, hydrolysis of (methylthio)glucosinolates produces sulfur-containing aglycons which have demonstrated anticancer benefits. Selenized Brassicaceae contain (methylseleno)glucosinolates and their selenium-containing aglycons. As a prelude to biological testing, broccoli, cauliflower, and forage rape plants were treated with sodium selenate and their tap roots, stems, leaves, and florets analyzed for selenoglucosinolates and their Se aglycons. Two new selenoglucosinolates were identified: glucoselenoraphanin in broccoli florets and glucoselenonasturtiin in forage rape roots. A new aglycon, selenoberteroin nitrile, was identified in forage rape. The major selenoglucosinolates were glucoselenoerucin in broccoli, glucoselenoiberverin in cauliflower, and glucoselenoerucin and glucoselenoberteroin in forage rape roots. In broccoli florets, the concentrations of selenglucosinolates exceeded those of their sulfur analogues. Fertilization with selenium slightly reduced (methylthio)glucosinolates and aglycons in the roots, but increased them in the florets, the leaves, and sometimes the stems. These discoveries provide a new avenue for investigating how consumption of Brassica vegetables and their organoselenides may promote human health.