BackgroundWolbachia are among the most prevalent endosymbiotic bacteria and induce reproductive anomalies in various invertebrate taxa. The bacterium has huge impacts on host reproductive biology, immunity, evolution, and molecular machinery. However, broad-scale surveys of Wolbachia infections at the order scale, including the order Coleoptera, are limited. In this study, we investigated the Wolbachia infection frequency in 201 Coleopteran insects collected in Korea.ResultsA total of 26 species (12.8%) belonging to 11 families harbored Wolbachia. The phylogenetic trees of based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and partial Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene sequences were largely incongruent to that of their hosts. This result confirms that Wolbachia evolved independently from their hosts,ConclusionPhylogenetic trees suggest that complex horizontal gene transfer and recombination events occurred within and between divergent Wolbachia subgroups.