One hundred sixty-six isolates of Fusarium spp. from domestic cereal grains, feed, and other sources were examined for their ability to produce zearalenone on autoclaved moist rice grains. They belonged to the following species (number of producers/number tested): F. roseum (9/28), F. roseum (Culmorum) (3/4), F. roseum (Gibbosum) (2/5), F. roseum (Avenaceum) (1/2), F. roseum (Scirpi) (0/1), F. tricinctum (1/4), F. tricinctum (Sporotrichiella) (0/7), F. lateritium (1/1), F. episphaeria (0/2), F. moniliforme (0/3), F. oxysporum (0/12), F. rigidiusculum (0/4), F. solani (0/4), F. splendens (0/1), F. nivale (0/2), and Fusarium spp. (15/86). Zearalenone was isolated from molded rice by ethanol extraction and purified by column chromatography. Selected isolates of F. roseum M-3-2 and F. roseum (Gibbosum) A-O-2 produced 50 to 100 mg of zearalenone per kg of rice. Increased yields (250 to 407 mg/kg of rice) were obtained by F. roseum M-3-2 when the substrate was supplemented with 1% peptone.