1. The distribution and morphology of chromaffin cells in the para-aortic region and in the ganglia of the paravertebral sympathetic chain was studied with fluorescence histochemistry and electron microscopy. 2. Four types of chromaffin cell were distinguished largely on the basis of their vesicular content: Type I cells contain large, electron-dense vesicles (600-7000 A) and are comparable to noradrenaline-containing cells in the adrenal gland, Type II cells contain large, vesicles (600-7000 A) that are filled with a less electron-dense material than that in Type I cells and are comparable to adrenaline-containing cells in the adrenal gland, Type III cells contain smaller vesicles (1000-3000 A) that are incompletely filled with an electron-dense material and may represent cells that have been depleted of their catecholamines by stimulation, Type IV cells are clearly different from the other three cell types with respect to the size and appearance of the vesicles (1000-1500 A), nuclei and rough endoplasmic reticulum and may represent immature sympathetic neurons. 3. Nerve profiles, identified as cholinergic, were found in close apposition with all four cell types. No examples of a close association between processes of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons were found.