Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is among the most common hereditary nephropathies. Low bone turnover osteopenia has been reported in mice with conditional deletion of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes in osteoblasts, and preliminary clinical data also suggest suppressed bone turnover in patients with ADPKD. The present study compared the bone phenotype between patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) due to ADPKD and controls with ESRD due to other causes. Laboratory parameters of bone mineral metabolism (fibroblast growth factor 23 and sclerostin), bone turnover markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) and bone mineral density (BMD, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, DXA) were assessed in 518 patients with ESRD, including 99 with ADPKD. Bone histomorphometry data were available in 71 patients, including 10 with ADPKD. Circulating levels of bone alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in patients with ADPKD (17.4 vs 22.6 ng/mL), as were histomorphometric parameters of bone formation. Associations between ADPKD and parameters of bone formation persisted after adjustment for classical determinants including parathyroid hormone, age, and sex. BMD was higher in skeletal sites rich in cortical bone in patients with ADPKD compared to non-ADPKD patients (Z-score midshaft radius -0.04 vs -0.14; femoral neck -0.72 vs -1.02). Circulating sclerostin levels were significantly higher in ADPKD patients (2.20 vs 1.84 ng/L). In conclusion, patients with ESRD due to ADPKD present a distinct bone and mineral phenotype, characterized by suppressed bone turnover, better preserved cortical BMD, and high sclerostin levels.