The Pacific white shrimp, with the largest production in shrimp industry, has suffered from multiple severe viral and bacterial diseases, which calls for a more reliable and environmentally friendly system to promote shrimp culture. The “Aquamimicry system”, mimicking the nature of aquatic ecosystems for the well-being of aquatic animals, has effectively increased shrimp production and been adapted in many countries. However, the microbial communities in the shrimp intestine and surrounding environment that act as an essential component in Aquamimicry remain largely unknown. In this study, the microbial composition and diversity alteration in shrimp intestine, surrounding water and sediment at different culture stages were investigated by high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, obtaining 13,562 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Results showed that the microbial communities in shrimp intestine and surrounding environment were significantly distinct from each other, and 23 distinguished taxa for each habitat were further characterized. The microbial communities differed significantly at different culture stages, confirmed by a great number of OTUs dramatically altered during the culture period. A small part of these altered OTUs were shared between shrimp intestine and surrounding environment, suggesting that the microbial alteration of intestine was not consistent with that of water and sediment. Regarding the high production of Aquamimicry farm used as a case in this study, the dissimilarity between intestinal and surrounding microbiota might be considered as a potential indicator for healthy status of shrimp farming, which provided hints on the appropriate culture practices to improve shrimp production.