BackgroundTransverse myelitis (TM) is due to inflammatory spinal cord injury with bilateral neurologic involvement, which is sensory, motor, or autonomic in nature. It may be associated with autoimmune disease, vaccination, intoxication and infections. The most common infection cause of TM is Coxsackie virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The cryptococcosis is rare. We present the case of disseminated cryptococcosis revealed by transverse myelitis in an immunocompetent 55-year-old male patient. The literature review is also stated.Case presentationThe 55-year-old man suffered from gradual numbness, weakness in both lower limbs and finally paralyzed in the bed. The thoracic spine Computed tomography (CT) was normal, but multiple nodules in the lung were accidentally discovered. Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed diffused thoracic spinal cord thickening and extensively intramedullary T2 hyper intensity areas. Gadolinium contrast enhanced T1WI showed an intramedullary circle-enhanced nodule at 9th thoracic level. Diagnosis was made by histological examination of the bilateral lung biopsy. The patient was treated successfully with systemic amphotericin B liposome and fluconazole and intrathecal dexamethasone and amphotericin B liposome.ConclusionsThis is a patient with disseminated cryptococcosis involving the lung, spinal cord and adrenal glands, which is rare in the absence of immunodeficiency.