1. The disposition of the anti-epileptic agents phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbitone (PB) was investigated in lobules of term human placentae perfused using separate maternal and fetal circulations for 6 h periods. 2. No evidence for metabolism of PHT or PB to their p-hydroxylated or other derivatives was found either in perfused lobules or by incubation with placental microsomes. 3. Both PHT and PB were readily transferred across the placenta after administration to either the maternal or fetal perfusates. 4. PHT, unlike PB, showed considerable accumulation in placental tissue.