Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (IPAH) is a deadly and disabling disease characterized by severe vascular remodeling of small pulmonary vessels by fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies suggest that the Natriuretic Peptide Clearance Receptor (NPR-C) signaling pathways may play a crucial role in the development of IPAH. Reduced expression or function of NPR-C signaling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells may contribute to the pulmonary vascular remodeling, which is characteristic of this disease. The likely mechanisms may involve an impaired interaction between NPR-C, specific growth factors and other signal transduction pathways including but not limited to Gqα/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/PI3K and AKT signaling. The resulting failure of growth suppression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells provides critical clues to the cellular pathobiology of IPAH. The reciprocal regulation of NPR-C signaling in models of tissue remodeling may thus provide new insights to our understanding of IPAH.