During an infection, hematopoiesis is altered to increase the output of mature myeloid cells to fight off the pathogen. Despite convincing evidence that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can sense pathogens directly, more mechanistic studies are needed to reveal whether pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling initiates myeloid development directly, or indirectly through the production of cytokines by HSPCs that can act in an autocrine/paracrine manner, or by a combination of both direct and indirect mechanisms. In this study, we have used an in vitro model of murine HSPCs to study myeloid differentiation in response to the TLR2 ligand Pam3CSK4 and showed that, besides indirect mechanisms, TLR2 stimulation of HSPCs promotes myelopoiesis directly by initiating a MyD88-dependent signaling. This direct differentiation program involves a combined activation of the transcription factors PU.1, C/EBPβ, and IRF7 driven by TBK1 and PI3K/mTOR. Notably, downstream of MyD88, the activated TBK1 kinase can activate mTOR directly and IRF7 induction is mediated by both TBK1 and mTOR. TLR2 signaling also induces NF-κB dependent IL-6 production that may further induce indirect myeloid differentiation. Our results have identified the direct signaling pathways and the transcription factors involved in macrophage development from HSPCs in response to TLR2 engagement, a critical process to trigger a rapid immune response during infection. © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: [email protected].