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Direct comparisons of European primary and secondary frequency standards via satellite techniques

  • Riedel, F.
  • Al-Masoudi, A.
  • Benkler, E.
  • Dörscher, S.
  • Gerginov, V.
  • Grebing, C.
  • Häfner, S.
  • Huntemann, N.
  • Lipphardt, B.
  • Lisdat, C.
  • Peik, E.
  • Piester, D.
  • Sanner, C.
  • Tamm, C.
  • Weyers, S.
  • Denker, H.
  • Timmen, L.
  • Voigt, C.
  • Calonico, D.
  • Cerretto, G.
  • And 29 more
Publication Date
Oct 09, 2019
Submission Date
Oct 09, 2019
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We carried out a 26-day comparison of five simultaneously operated optical clocks and six atomic fountain clocks located at INRIM, LNE-SYRTE, NPL and PTB by using two satellite-based frequency comparison techniques: broadband Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) and Global Positioning System Precise Point Positioning (GPS PPP). With an enhanced statistical analysis procedure taking into account correlations and gaps in the measurement data, combined overall uncertainties in the range of $1.8 \times 10^{-16}$ to $3.5 \times 10^{-16}$ for the optical clock comparisons were found. The comparison of the fountain clocks yields results with a maximum relative frequency difference of $6.9 \times 10^{-16}$, and combined overall uncertainties in the range of $4.8 \times 10^{-16}$ to $7.7 \times 10^{-16}$.

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