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Diphtheria-Associated Myocarditis: Clinical Profiles and Mortality Trends in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan.

Authors
  • Ilyas, Saadia1
  • Khan, Imran2
  • Yousafzai, Zaland A3
  • Kamran Amin, Qazi3
  • Rahman, Zainab4
  • Bilal, Muhammad1
  • 1 Pediatric Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, PAK.
  • 2 Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, PAK.
  • 3 Medicine, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, PAK.
  • 4 Pediatric Medicine, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, PAK.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cureus
Publisher
Cureus, Inc.
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2024
Volume
16
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.56744
PMID: 38650814
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection, causing diphtheria, is a public health concern, particularly in developing nations like Pakistan. Despite immunization efforts, recent outbreaks since 2022 have emphasized the continuing threat. This study focuses on describing the clinical characteristics of children with diphtheria-induced myocarditis and exploring the association between early cardiac abnormalities, future fatality rates, and contributing factors. A one-year cross-sectional study was undertaken at Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar, encompassing 73 pediatric patients diagnosed with diphtheria-associated myocarditis. Data, including demographic characteristics, cardiac enzymes, and serial ECG and echocardiography data, were gathered from the health management information system (HMIS). Institutional Ethical Committee approval was obtained, and informed consent was waived due to its retrospective nature. Gender distribution within the study was balanced, with 35 males (47.9%) and 38 females (52.1%). ECG data revealed various prevalence rates: 27.4% for rhythm abnormalities, 20% for conduction abnormalities, 6.8% for ischemia alterations, and 20.5% for normal findings. Treatment measures included anti-diphtheria serum (ADS) in 87.7% and temporary pacemaker placement (TPM) in 13.7% of patients. Echo findings indicated a variety of cardiac dysfunctions: 53.4% with no dysfunction, 9.6% mild malfunction, 6.8% with moderate dysfunction, and 30.1% with severe dysfunction. The categorization of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and troponin I (Trop I) gave insights into the biochemical aspects. This study gives a full insight into the clinical symptoms of diphtheria-induced myocarditis in children. The findings can help establish a foundation for ongoing study into potential gender-related trends in clinical outcomes, contributing to improved care and preventative methods. Copyright © 2024, Ilyas et al.

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