Ca antagonists of the dihydropyridine class (DHPs) are a heterogeneous group of drugs that interfere with Ca entry into vascular smooth muscle cells of resistance arterioles through type-L calcium channels producing arteriolar vasodilation. This leads to a reduction of vascular tone and, therefore, they have been successfully used in the treatment of systemic hypertension, myocardial ischemia (stable, variant, and unstable angina and silent ischemia), and Raynaud's phenomenon. Furthermore, recent clinical trials have indicated that DHPs may induce regression or slowing the progression of atheroma in coronary arteries. The results obtained with DHPs in the prophylaxis of migraine headache and in treating ischemic stroke and cerebral artery vasospasm are encouraging. However, more carefully designed, double-blind, large-scale, long-term studies are needed to better define the therapeutic value of DHPs in these disorders, the severity of adverse effects, and the mechanism responsible for their therapeutic effects.