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Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014.

Authors
  • Thompson, Maranda1
  • Hein, Nicholas2
  • Hanson, Corrine3
  • Smith, Lynette M4
  • Anderson-Berry, Ann5
  • Richter, Chesney K6
  • Stessy Bisselou, Karl7
  • Kusi Appiah, Adams8
  • Kris-Etherton, Penny9
  • Skulas-Ray, Ann C10
  • Nordgren, Tara M11
  • 1 Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. [email protected]
  • 2 College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. [email protected]
  • 3 College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. [email protected]
  • 4 College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. [email protected]
  • 5 Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. [email protected]
  • 6 Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. [email protected]
  • 7 College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. [email protected]
  • 8 College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. [email protected]
  • 9 Department of Nutritional Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. [email protected]
  • 10 Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. [email protected]
  • 11 Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nutrients
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 15, 2019
Volume
11
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/nu11010177
PMID: 30650613
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003⁻2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1⁻19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.

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