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Differentiation of Commercially Available Kratom by Purported Country of Origin using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry.

Authors
  • Braley, Cody1
  • Hondrogiannis, Ellen M1
  • 1 Master of Science, Forensic Science Program, Department of Chemistry, Towson University, Towson, MD, 21252-0001.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of forensic sciences
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2020
Volume
65
Issue
2
Pages
428–437
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.14201
PMID: 31560807
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Kratom is a plant material exhibiting both analgesic and stimulant effects and is also forensically relevant since it is abused as a "legal high." It is regulated in several countries but not scheduled in the United States at the federal level. This study used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the concentrations of 13 elements in 19 kratom samples obtained from an online distributor selling kratom, from Borneo, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam, for the purpose of using the elements to discriminate among purported country of origin, "suborigin," and strain. Analysis of variance revealed statistical differences in concentrations of elements from each group, while discriminant function analysis (using leave-one-out classification) successfully classified kratom samples by their purported country of origin (100%), "suborigin," (100%), and strain (86%). Our method illustrates the possibility of utilizing ICP-MS for determination of commercially available kratom samples by purported origin, "subororign," or by product line. © 2019 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

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