Social cognition was shown as a rate limiting factor for both psychosocial outcome and response to psychosocial intervention in schizophrenia. In a randomized controlled trial a new cognitive-behavioral group treatment for schizophrenic inpatients (the "Training of Emotional Intelligence", TEI) was tested against the well evaluated "Integrated Psychological Therapy Program" (IPT) of H. Brenner. Within the framework of P. Salovey's work the Training of Emotional Intelligence focussed on three domains of deficits in schizophrenia: emotional perception, emotional understanding and emotional management. In the randomized controlled trial with 41 DSM-IV schizophrenic inpatients no differences were found in problem-solving and negative symptoms, both post treatment and in the 12 months-follow up. Additionally there was a better outcome in affect decoding capacity post treatment, and a progess in regulation of negative affects in the follow up. Emotional role taking behavior and social anxiety returned to baseline level, perhaps by reasons of no "booster sessions" in the follow up. Unfortunately in contrast to our hypotheses we failed to show treatment-specific effects, which may be due to an underpowered statistical testing. There was only one exception of this: While the Integrated Psychological Therapy Program showed a greater reduction of global psychopathology after treatment, the Training of Emotional Intelligence reduced psychopathology in the follow up more strongly. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.