To better understand the response of plants to atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), we investigated biomass accumulation in 3 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana: C24, Columbia (Col-0), and Landsberg erecta (Ler). Plants were grown in NO2-free air for 1 week after sowing, followed by 3 (Col-0 and Ler) to 4 (C24) weeks in air with or without NO 2 (10 or 50 ppb). NO2 treatment increased the biomass of all 3 accessions to varying extents. Treatment with 10 ppb NO2 increased shoot biomass in C24, Col-0, and Ler by 3.2-, 1.4-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, compared with control. Treatment with 50 ppb gave similar increases, except in C24 (2.7-fold). The physiological, evolutionary, and genetic significance of these results are discussed below.