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Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of atorvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical and biological samples using a vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide electrode.

Authors
  • Silva, Tiago Almeida1
  • Zanin, Hudson
  • Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã
  • Corat, Evaldo José
  • Fatibello-Filho, Orlando
  • 1 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís km 235, P. O. Box 676, São Carlos, CEP: 13560-970, SP, Brazil. [email protected] , (Brazil)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Analyst
Publisher
The Royal Society of Chemistry
Publication Date
Jun 07, 2014
Volume
139
Issue
11
Pages
2832–2841
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1039/c4an00111g
PMID: 24752746
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (VACNT-GO) electrode is proposed, and its ability to determine atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) is evaluated. VACNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method and then treated with oxygen plasma to produce the VACNT-GO electrode. The oxygen plasma treatment exfoliates the carbon nanotube tips exposing graphene foils and inserting oxygen functional groups, these effects improved the VACNT wettability (super-hydrophobic) which is crucial for its electrochemical application. The electrochemical behaviour of ATOR on the VACNT-GO electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that it underwent an irreversible oxidation process at a potential of +1.08 V in pHcond 2.0 (0.2 mol L(-1) buffer phosphate solution). By applying DPAdSV under optimized experimental conditions the analytical curve was found to be linear in the ATOR concentration range of 90 to 3.81 × 10(3) nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 9.4 nmol L(-1). The proposed DPAdSV method was successfully applied in the determination of ATOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, and the results were in close agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method at a confidence level of 95%.

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