The aim of this study was to investigate whether glial-associated molecules exhibit a pattern of expression that could influence oriented dendrite outgrowth in the gerbil lateral superior olive (LSO). In particular, we have previously noted that axon fascicles are oriented parallel to isofrequency laminae in the medial limb of the LSO, as are LSO dendrites, a phenotype that emerges postnatally. Therefore, we examined the immunocytochemical staining pattern of antibodies directed against three proteins that are found along axons: myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (L1). MAG staining was first observed at postnatal day (P) 4 on the axon fibers surrounding the LSO. By P7 there was a differential pattern of MAG staining within the LSO, and immunopositive fibers were observed solely in the medial limb (e.g., high frequency projection region). Between P7 and P12, MAG staining was restricted largely to fascicles in the medial limb, and these were oriented parallel to the isofrequency axes. Few positive fibers of irregular orientation were observed in the lateral limb (e.g., low frequency projection region). Significant MAG-staining was not observed in the lateral limb until P15. The MAG immunoreactivity extended throughout the LSO by P21, although it was no longer restricted to axon fascicles. In contrast, MBP-positive fibers were uniformly distributed within the LSO by P12. Finally, L1 was found on oriented axon fascicles at P0, but became sparsely distributed throughout the LSO neuropil after P7, and was restricted to neuron cell bodies in the adult. Taken together, the results suggest that oriented axon fascicles bearing MAG and L1 may contribute to the developmental refinement of dendrite and axon arbors within the LSO.