This study explored the anticonvulsant effects of adenosine analogs at the focus of seizures kindled from various brain structures. Chemitrodes were implanted in the amygdala (AM), hippocampus (HIPP), or caudate nucleus (CN) of Long-Evans rats and electrically stimulated once daily until fully generalized seizures appeared (i.e., kindled). Once kindled, various doses (0.001-0.5 microgram/0.5 microliter) of the adenosine analogs, L-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA), N-ethylcarboximidoadenosine (NECA) or vehicle were injected into the seizure focus 5 min prior to electrical stimulation. The afterdischarge (AD) and behavioral seizure stages were measured. L-PIA had potent anticonvulsant effects when injected directly into the kindled seizure focus in the AM, HIPP, or CN. NECA effects were statistically significant only in CN-kindled seizures. The regional differences in efficacy of the two adenosine analogs suggest that L-PIA, an A1 adenosine subtype agonist, may exert its effects through A1 adenosine receptors in the AM, HIPP, and CN, where A1 binding has been demonstrated, whereas NECA, an A2 adenosine receptor agonist, may only be maximally effective in the CN where A2 adenosine binding sites are located.