Obesity is a common problem in dogs and overconsumption of energy-rich foods is a key factor. This study compared the inflammatory response and fecal metabolome of dogs fed a high-fat vs. a high-starch diet. Ten healthy lean adult beagles were equally allocated into two groups in a cross-over design. Each group received two diets in which fat (horse fat) and starch (pregelatinized corn starch) were exchanged in an isocaloric way to compare high fat vs. high starch. There was a tendency to increase the glucose and glycine concentrations and the glucose/insulin ratio in the blood in dogs fed with the high-fat diet, whereas there was a decrease in the level of Non-esterified fatty acids and a tendency to decrease the alanine level in dogs fed with the high-starch diet. Untargeted analysis of the fecal metabolome revealed 10 annotated metabolites of interest, including L-methionine, which showed a higher abundance in dogs fed the high-starch diet. Five other metabolites were upregulated in dogs fed the high-fat diet, but could not be annotated. The obtained results indicate that a high-starch diet, compared to a high-fat diet, may promote lipid metabolism, anti-oxidative effects, protein biosynthesis and catabolism, mucosal barrier function, and immunomodulation in healthy lean dogs.