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Dietary management of obesity.

Authors
  • Astrup, Arne
Type
Published Article
Journal
JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2008
Volume
32
Issue
5
Pages
575–577
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/0148607108321707
PMID: 18753397
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The reduction of the total fat content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces almost all risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat and energy, and increased physical activity has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 58% in 2 major trials. In post hoc analyses, the reduction in dietary fat (energy density) and increase in fiber were the strongest predictors of weight loss and diabetes-protective effects. LOW-GLYCEMIC INDEX AND HIGH-PROTEIN DIETS: It remains to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides any benefit to weight control beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence that increasing the protein content of the diet from 15% up to 20%-30%, at the expense of carbohydrates, increases the satiating effect of the diet, and induces a spontaneous weight loss, and this could turn out to be a preferred option for patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

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