The low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance. Among factors triggering such inflammation, recent works revealed the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), so-called endotoxins. LPS are naturally present in the gut via the intestinal microbiota. Recent studies show that they can induce in plasma a metabolic endotoxemia after the consumption of unbalanced hyperlipidic meals. This article reviews recent knowledge gained on the role of intestinal lipid absorption and the composition of dietary lipids on: (i) the induction of metabolic endotoxemia, (ii) the types of plasma transporters of LPS and (iii) associated low-grade inflammation. Notably, lipids are present in foods under various physicochemical structures and notably in emulsified form. Our recent works reveal that such structure and the type of emulsifier can modulate postprandial lipemia; recent results on the possible consequences on metabolic endotoxemia will be discussed.