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Dietary intake assessment of pyrethroid residues from okra and eggplant grown in peri-urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan.

  • Amjad, Adnan1
  • Randhawa, Muhammad Atif2, 3
  • Javed, Muhammad Sameem4
  • Muhammad, Zafarullah5
  • Ashraf, Mussawar2
  • Ahmad, Zulfiqar6
  • Murtaza, Shamas7
  • 1 Institute of Food Science & Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 2 National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 3 College of Public Health, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 4 Institute of Food Science & Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. [email protected] , (Pakistan)
  • 5 College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. , (China)
  • 6 Department of Food Science and Technology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 7 Department of Food Science and Technology, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Multan, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
Published Article
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Publication Date
Nov 01, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06037-6
PMID: 31410838


This study was designed to assess the gradual increase in the use of insecticides on vegetables and to familiarize the consumers regarding the insecticide residues. The purpose of this research work was to highlight the detrimental effects of pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) compare with dietary intake assessment of eggplant and okra grown in peri-urban environment. In this manner, a total of 180 (n = 60 × 3) samples of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were procured from the peri-urban farming system of Faisalabad, Multan, and Gujranwala to assess the pyrethroid residues along with their dietary intake assessment. The procured vegetables were quantified for pyrethroid residues by using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Outcomes of this study revealed that for okra samples, the highest residues of bifenthrin (1.25 mg kg-1) were found in Gujranwala then Multan (1.5 mg kg-1) and Faisalabad (1.04 mg kg-1), whereas in eggplant, the highest residues were recorded for bifenthrin from Faisalabad (1.33 mg kg-1) and Gujranwala (0.78 mg kg-1). In Multan, the highest residues for cyfluthrin (1.18 mg kg-1) were reported in eggplant. Out of all analyzed samples for pyrethroid residues, 32% samples contained detectable residues and 6% samples exceeded their maximum residual limits (MRLs) established by the European Union (EU). Dietary intake assessment (mg kg-1 day-1) was calculated as per their maximum permissible intake (MPI) values, i.e., bifenthrin (1.28), cyfluthrin (1.28), cypermethrin (3.20), deltamethrin (0.64), fenvalerate (1.28), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.064), and permethrin (3.20) respectively. Conclusively, residues from the Multan region were greater than those from Gujranwala and Faisalabad showing excessive application of pyrethroids. Overall results revealed that although some samples exceeded MRLs in selected areas, their safe consumption limit was found.

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