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Dietary inflammatory index score, glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors profile in people with type 2 diabetes.

Authors
  • Vitale, Marilena1
  • Calabrese, Ilaria1
  • Massimino, Elena1
  • Shivappa, Nitin2, 3
  • Hebert, James R2, 3
  • Auciello, Stefania1
  • Grioni, Sara4
  • Krogh, Vittorio4
  • Sartore, Giovanni5
  • Signorini, Stefano6
  • Rivellese, Angela A1
  • Riccardi, Gabriele1
  • Vaccaro, Olga7
  • Masulli, Maria1
  • 1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.
  • 3 Department of Nutrition, Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC, USA.
  • 4 Unità di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 5 Dipartimento di Medicina, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 6 Department Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of Desio, Monza, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 7 Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy. , (Italy)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International journal of food sciences and nutrition
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2021
Volume
72
Issue
4
Pages
529–536
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2020.1832054
PMID: 33045863
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

We examined the relationships between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factor profiles in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII™) scores were calculated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire in 2568 T2DM patients from different parts of Italy. Analyses were conducted according to quartiles of sex-specific E-DII scores. Higher, more pro-inflammatory, (quartile 4) E-DII scores were associated with overall poor quality of the diet characterised by higher content of refined carbohydrates, added sugars, saturated fat and cholesterol and lower unsaturated fat, fibre and polyphenols compared to quartile 1. Higher E-DII scores also were associated with higher waist circumference (105.4 vs. 103.5 cm; p = 0.002), triglycerides (154.6 vs. 146.1 mg/dL; p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (80.05 vs. 78.6 mmHg; p = 0.04) and lower HDL-cholesterol (45.3 vs. 47.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04). In conclusion, E-DII is a potent marker of overall quality of the diet and is associated with an unfavourable cardiovascular risk factor profile.

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