Dientamoeba fragilis is an intestinal protozoan, an inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract, with a worldwide distribution. The reported prevalence of D. fragilis varies worldwide in different populations between 0.3% and 82.9%, and its role as a pathogen is still unclear. The parasite has been identified in the faeces of asymptomatic patients and with different acute and chronic symptoms, like abdominal pain, diarrhoea, flatulence, nausea and vomiting. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of D. fragilis in the North-East of Italy, and the clinical improvement of symptoms after recommended treatment with paromomycin or metronidazole. Furthermore, a literature review of D. fragilis prevalence studies in Italy was carried out to show the Italian situation. Of 575 enrolled people, 85 (14.8%) were positive for D. fragilis. The most prevalent symptoms were abdominal pain 28.2%, anal itching 27.1%, watery diarrhoea 18.8%, meteorism 16.5% and nausea/lack of appetite 14.1%. The high rate of anal itching was unexpected, because it wasn't a common symptom. 32 patients were co-infected with B. hominis (37.7%) and three with G. lamblia (3.5%). Our study showed paromomycin had a high efficacy for treatment of D. fragilis infections 100.0% (45/45), while caution must be used when using metronidazole 53.3% (24/40). We recommend paromomycin for empirical treatment, given its great effectiveness in our population. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.