Pesticides are used in agriculture and in domestic pest control. Dichlorvos, an organophosphate, is a predominant pesticide used in domestic insect control in developing countries. Acute and prolonged exposure may lead to death, genotoxic, neurological, reproductive, carcinogenic, immunological, hepatic, renal, respiratory, metabolic, dermal and other systemic effects. Its toxicity is due to the ability of the compound to inhibit acetyl cholinesterase at cholinergic junction of the nervous system. This study is a review of the toxicological effects of dichlorvos in a public health perspective.